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Ointments – Definition, Properties, Characteristics, and More

Ointments Definition

Ointments are semisolid preparations for external application, whose soft and oily consistency allows them to quickly spread on the skin and mucous membranes.

It consists of the active principles and a base that can be of 4 types: oily, absorbent, water-soluble (gel), and emulsive (milk and creams).

The active principles are also incorporated into the base for its preparation, mixing mechanically, either directly or after melting as appropriate.

What are the Properties of Ointments?

The main properties of ointments or ointments are analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, antiseptic, astringent, soothing, emollient, exfoliating, moisturizing, hypoallergenic, moisturizing, non-comedogenic, nourishing, regenerating, relaxing, and also toning.

Characteristics of Ointments

ointments

  1. They must be of such a consistency that they soften, do not necessarily melt when they come into contact with the body.
  2. They serve as vehicles for medicinal substances and also act as emollients and protectors. Those that intend to apply to the [eyes] are called ophthalmic ointments.
  3. And also, the name of creams often give to new ointment bases, but it is necessary to differentiate them from cosmetic creams, calling them therapeutic or medicinal creams.
  4. They differ in that the former do not have [perfume] and contain active therapeutic components.
  5. The latter are perfumed and usually do not contain a medicinal substance.
  6. And also, the best classification of ointments is that of the characteristics of the base or excipient:
  • Oily-based ointments.
  • Ointments with absorption base.
  • Emulsion-based ointments:

1) Based on the water-in-oil emulsion.

2) Based on the emulsion in water.

  • And also, Ointments with a water-soluble base.

7. Depending on their penetration power, they can be epidermal, endodermal, and diadermic.

8. And also, ointments prepare by two general methods: mechanical incorporation and fusion.

9. The choice depends on the drug to be incorporated and the base components’ physical properties.

10. And also convenient to keep the ointments in a cool place and, if possible, no light and air.

What are the Types of Ointments?

ointments

1. Oily Ointment

  • The most commonly used oil base is petroleum jelly, and less frequently, petrolatum or yellow petroleum jelly, vegetable or mineral oils also use.
  • The consistency of these excipients can be increased, for example, in regions with high temperatures, by adding white wax, yellow wax, beeswax, or sperm whale.
  • And also, ointments, despite their low or no water content, can be refreshing if they contain starch.
  • When looking for an absorbent base to vaseline, lanolin adds, capable of absorbing up to twice its weight in water.
  • They are thus allowing water-soluble substances to incorporate into the ointment.
  • Stabilizing agents such as hydrogenated castor oil, non-pyrogenic silica, aluminum, zinc, and magnesium soaps often add.
  • And also, as a result, the organoleptic characteristics and thermostability considerably improve.

2. Camphor Ointment

Composition

  1. Camphor ……………………………… 200g
  2. White wax ………………………… .100g
  3. And also, Solid petrolatum ……………………… 700g

Preparation

  • Melt the white wax and the petrolatum, remove from the heat and add the camphor previously pulverized and placed in a mortar.
  • And also, shake circularly until cool.

Use

  • And also, Rubefacient. Anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory.

Rot

  • And also, external use.

3. Peruvian Balsam Ointment and Silver Nitrate

Composition

  1. Silver nitrate ……………………………… 0.50g
  2. And also, Castor oil …………………………………… 15ml
  3. Balsams of Peru …………………………… 15ml
  4. Lanolin …………………………………………… 35g
  5. And also, Solid Petrolatum ………………………………..35g

Preparation

  • And also, grind the silver nitrate in a glass mortar, add 1ml of distilled water, add the lanolin.
  • Peru’s balsam previously mixes with castor oil and in small portions the pretolato until obtaining a homogeneous ointment.

Use

  • And also, Tistular stimulant. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory.

Rot

  • And also, external use.

4. Boricada Pomade

Composition

  1. Boric acid ………………………… 10g
  2. And also, Solid petrolatum ……………………..90g

Preparation

  • And also, crush the powdered boric acid in a mortar with a petrolatum weight and add the rest of the petrolatum in small portions until a homogeneous mass obtain.

Use

  • Light antiseptic. And also, it has a cleansing effect against infections.

Rot

  • And also, external use.

5. Vaseline and Lanolin Ointment

Composition

  1. Vaseline ………………………………………… 20g
  2. Anhydrous Lanolin ……………………………… 10ml
  3. And also, Lime water …………………………………… 10ml
  4. Cherry laurel water ………………………..10ml
  5. And also, Rosewater ..……………………………….10ml

Preparation

  • And also, mix the lanolin and petroleum jelly and slowly add the lime, cherry laurel, and rose water until smooth.

Use

  • And also, skin protector. Its apolar and hydrophilic characteristics (fat) produce a layer on the skin, protecting it against exposure.

Rot

  • And also, external use.

6. White’s Pomade

Composition

  1. Coal pitch ……………………………… 4g
  2. Starch ………………………………… 24g
  3. Zinc oxide. ………………………… 12g
  4. And also, Solid petrolatum ……………………….60g

Preparation

  • Mix the starch and zinc oxide and grind with 40g of petroleum jelly until a homogeneous mass obtain.
  • And also, add the tar previously mixed with 20g of petrolatum in small portions to obtain a homogeneous whole.

Use

  • And also, in dermatology: eczema, psoriasis, and pruritus. It also uses to counteract the itching caused by an infectious germ, be it bacteriological or fungal (fungus).

Rot

  • And also, external use.

7. Whitfield Ointment

Composition

  1. Benzoic acid ……………………… 6g
  2. Salicylic Acid. ………………………. 3g
  3. And also, Solid petrolatum, qs ………………..100g

Preparation

  • Spray and mix the salicylic and benzoic acid, add its weight in petroleum jelly, mix, and finally, in small portions, add the rest of the petroleum jelly.
  • Note: To this ointment, 9g of sulfur is usually added for the last piece, calling it sulfur Whitfield Ointment.

Use

  • And also, in dermatology: In epidermophytosis

Rot

  • And also, external use.

8. Iodine and Ictamol Ointment

Composition

  1. Iodine ……………………………..4g
  2. Potassium iodide ………… ……. 4g
  3. And also, Ictamol (ichthyol) …………………… 4g
  4. Glycerin ………………………… 12ml
  5. Lanolin ………………………… 20g
  6. And also, Solid petrolatum ………………… 60g

Preparation

  • And also, crush the iodine and potassium iodide in a glass mortar, add the glycerin until dissolved.
  • Then add the ictamol, and finally, gradually, the lanolin and the petrolatum until a homogeneous whole obtain.
  • And also, extemporaneous preparation. And also, avoid using metal utensils.

Use

  • In dermatology: Emollient and demulcent.

Rot

  • And also, external use.

Also Read: What is Oily Skin? – Causes, Home Remedies, and More

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