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Diseases and Cure

Epilepsy – Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, and More

Epilepsy Definition

Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) mess in which brain undertaking becomes abnormal. It is causing seizures or periods of unusual behaviours or sensations, and sometimes losing consciousness.

Anyone can epilepsy develop. It acts on both men and women of all races, ethnicities, and ages.

Symptoms of seizures can vary widely. Some epilepsy people stare for a few seconds during an attack, while others repeatedly move their arms or legs.

Treatment with medications or surgery can control attacks in most people. Many people require lifelong treatment to control seizures.

What are the Symptoms of Epilepsy?


Because epilepsy occurs because of abnormal brain activity, seizures can affect whatever processes the brain coordinates. Some of the signs and symptoms of attacks are:

  • Temporary confusion
  • Episodes of absences
  • Uncontrollable jerking move of the arms and legs
  • Loss of consciousness or consciousness
  • Psychic symptoms, such as fear, anxiety

Symptoms vary depending on the type of attack. In many cases, a person with epilepsy will tend to have the same seizure type with each episode so that symptoms will be similar from episode to episode.

Doctors generally classify seizures as focal or generalized, based on how abnormal brain activity begins.

What are the Causes of Epilepsy?


It has no identifiable cause in about half of the people who have this disease. In the other half, the condition can attribute to several factors, including the following:

1. Genetic Influence

  • Some types, which are classified by the type of seizure you experience or the part of the affected brain, are inherited. In these cases, there may be a genetic influence.
  • Some types of epilepsy to specific genes, but genes are only part of the cause of epilepsy for most people. Particular genes can make a person more sensitive to environmental conditions that trigger seizures.

2. Head Trauma

  • Head trauma as a result of a car accident or other traumatic injury can cause epilepsy.

3. Brain Diseases

  • Brain diseases that damage the brain, such as brain tumours or strokes, can cause epilepsy. Stroke is one of the leading causes of epilepsy in adults over 35 years of age.

4. Infectious Diseases

  • Infectious diseases, such as meningitis, AIDS, and viral encephalitis, can cause epilepsy.

5. Prenatal Injury

  • Before birth, babies are sensitive to brain damage caused by various factors, such as an infection in the mother, poor nutrition, or oxygen deficiencies. This brain damage can lead to epilepsy or cerebral palsy.

6. Developmental Disorders

  • Sometimes it can link to developmental disorders, such as autism and neurofibromatosis.

Risk Factors of Epilepsy

risk factor

Certain factors can increase the risk of epilepsy, such as the following:

1. Age

  • The onset of epilepsy is more common in children and older adults, but the disease can occur at any age.

2. Family Background

  • If you have a family history of epilepsy, you may have a higher risk of developing a seizure disorder.

3. Head Injuries

  • Head injuries are responsible for some cases of epilepsy.
  • You can reduce your risk by wearing a seat belt while in a vehicle and wearing a helmet while biking, skiing, riding a motorcycle, or participating in other activities with a high risk of head injury.

4. Stroke and Other Vascular Diseases

  • Stroke and another blood vessel (vascular) diseases can cause brain damage that can trigger epilepsy.
  • You can take several steps to lower your risk of these diseases, including limiting alcohol consumption and avoiding cigarettes, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly.

5. Dementia

  • Dementia can increase the risk of developing epilepsy in older adults.

6. Brain Infections

  • Infections such as meningitis, which causes inflammation in the brain or spinal cord, can increase the risk.

7. Attack in Childhood

  • High fevers in childhood can sometimes link to seizures. Children who have attacks due to high fevers overall will not develop epilepsy.
  • The risk of developing epilepsy increases if a child has a prolonged attack, another nervous system disease, or a family history of it.

Complications of Epilepsy

Having seizures at certain times can lead to dangerous circumstances for you or others.

1. Falls

  • If you fall during a seizure, you can hurt your head or break a bone.

2. He Drowned

  • You have epilepsy; you are 15 to 19 times more likely to drown swimming or taking a shower than the rest of the population due to the possibility of an attack in the water.

3. Car Accidents

  • A seizure that causes loss of consciousness or control can be dangerous if you drive a car or operating machinery.
  • Many states have driver’s license restrictions related to a driver’s ability to control seizures and impose a minimum amount of time for a driver to be seizure-free, ranging from months to years before driving.

4. Complications in Pregnancy

  • Seizures during pregnancy can be dangerous for both mother and baby, and certain antiepileptic drugs increase the risk of congenital disabilities.
  • If you have epilepsy and are thinking about getting pregnant, talk to your doctor while planning your pregnancy.
  • Most women with it can get pregnant and have healthy babies. It would help if you were under strict control during your pregnancy, and your medication may need to be adjusted.
  • It would help if you worked with your doctor to plan your pregnancy.

5. Emotional Health Problems

  • People with it are more likely to have psychological problems, especially depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts and behaviours.
  • Problems can be the result of difficulties dealing with the condition and side effects of medications.
  • Other life-threatening complications of epilepsy are rare, but they do happen. Some of them are:

6. Status Epilepticus

  • This condition occurs if you are in a state of continuous seizure activity that lasts more than five minutes or if you have frequent recurrent seizures without regaining full consciousness between them.
  • People with status epilepticus are at increased risk of permanent brain damage or death.

7. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

  • People with epilepsy also have a small risk of sudden unexpected death. The cause is unknown, but some research indicates that it can occur due to the heart or respiratory disorders.
  • People with frequent tonic-clonic seizures or whose seizures not control with medication may be at increased risk for SUDEP. Overall, about 1 per cent of the population with epilepsy dies from SUDEP.

When to See your Doctor

Seek immediate medical help in any of the following cases:

  • The seizure lasts more than five minutes.
  • Breathing or consciousness does not return once the seizure ends.
  • A second seizure occurs immediately.
  • You have a high fever.
  • You suffer from heat exhaustion.
  • Pregnant.
  • Do you have diabetes?
  • You suffered an injury during the seizure.

If this is the first time you’ve had a seizure, seek medical advice.


The more frequent and more severe the seizures, the more likely that neurobehavioral disorders will develop.

These disorders should actively consider in evaluating patients with epilepsy.

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