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What is Diabetes? – Definition, Causes, Types, Symptoms, and More

Diabetes Definition

Diabetes is a disease inside glucose levels (sugar) in the blood are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat.

Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose enter cells to supply them with energy. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not make insulin.

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What are the Causes of Diabetes?

Insulin a hormone produces by the pancreas to control blood sugar. It can cause too little insulin production, insulin resistance, or both.

It understands diabetes; is essential first to understand the normal process by which food transform. The body uses it for energy. Many things happen when food is digested and absorbed:

  • A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is the origin of energy for the body.
  • And also an organ called the pancreas makes insulin. The part of insulin is to move glucose from the bloodstream to muscle, fat, and other cells.
  • It can be stored or used as an energy source.
  • People with diabetes have high blood sugar levels because their body cannot move sugar from the blood to muscle. And fat cells to burn or store it for energy.

The liver produces too much glucose and secretes it in the blood. Because:

  • The pancreas does not make enough insulin
  • Cells do not respond typically to insulin

What are the Types of Diabetes?


There are two essential types of diabetes. Each kind is different causes and risk factors:

Type 1 Diabetes is Less Common

  • It occurs at any age but common diagnoses in children, adolescents, or young adults.
  • In this, the body makes little or no insulin. Because the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin stop working.
  • Daily insulin injections are needed. The exact cause of the inability to produce enough insulin is unknown.

Type 2 Diabetes is More Common


  • It almost always occurs in adulthood. But due to high rates of obesity. Children and adolescents are diagnoses with the disease.
  • And also many people who have this diabetes do not know they have this disease. With this, the body is resistant to insulin and does not use it effectively.
  • Not all people with this type are overweight or obese. There are other causes of diabetes, and many people cannot classify as type 1 or 2.

Gestational Diabetes

  • This diabetes is high blood sugar that occurs during pregnancy in a woman, but it does not diabetes.
  • And also one of your parents, brothers, or sisters has diabetes; you may be more likely to develop this disease.

What are the Symptoms of Diabetes?

Symptoms of Diabetes

High blood sugar can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • Blurry vision
  • Excessive thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Hungry
  • And also Weight loss

Since type 2 diabetes develops slowly, many people with high blood sugar have no symptoms. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes grow in a short time. And also people can be very ill at the time of diagnosis.

After several years, it can lead to other serious problems. Those problems are known as complications of diabetes and include:

Eye problems:  Such as hardly seeing (especially at night), sensitivity to light, and sightless.

Ulcers and poison in the leg or foot: Which, if left untreated, can lead to cut off the leg or foot.

Damage to nerves in the body: Tingling, loss of sensation, problems digesting food, and erectile dysfunction.

Kidney problems: can lead to kidney failure.

A weakening of the immune system:  can lead to more frequent infections increased the chance of having a heart attack or stroke.

How to do Tests and exams of Diabetes?

A urinalysis can show high blood sugar levels. But a urine test only does not diagnose it. Your healthcare provider may suspect that you have diabetes if your blood sugar level is above 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol / L).

The diagnosis to confirm, one or more of the following tests should do:

Fasting Blood Glucose

fbs diabetes

  • It diagnoses if your fasting glucose level is 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol / L) or higher on two tests.
  • And also levels between 100 and 125 mg/dl are known as impaired fasting prediabetes. These stages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

Hemoglobin A1c (A1C)

hba1c diabetes

  • Standard diabetes is less than 5.7%; prediabetes is between 5.7% and 6.4%, and diabetes is 6.5% or higher.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

It diagnoses if the glucose level is 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol / L), the highest after 2 hours of drinking a sugary drink (this test most often uses for type 2). Showing for type 2 diabetes in people without symptoms recommends:

  • Overweight children – It risk factors for diabetes, starting at the age of 10 and repeating every three years.
  • And also overweight adults (BMI 25 or higher) -It risk factors such as having high blood pressure or having a mother, father, sister, or brother with diabetes.

For adults over 45 years, it repeats every three years.

Treatment of Diabetes

Treatment of Diabetes

  1. Type 2 diabetes can sometimes be counteracted with lifestyle changes, especially losing weight with exercise and eating healthy foods.
  2. Many cases of type 2 can also improve with weight-loss surgery. There is no cure for type 1 (except for a pancreas or islet cell transplant).
  3. Treatment for both types of diabetes consists of nutrition, activity, and medications to control blood sugar.
  4. All people with diabetes should receive proper education and support on the best ways to manage it. Ask your doctor about seeing a certified educator (CDE).
  5. And also getting better control of your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels help reduce your risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system disease, heart attack, and stroke.
  6. To prevent complications from it, visit your provider at least 2 to 4 times a year. Tell him about the problems you are having. Follow your provider’s instructions on managing it.

Possible Complications of Diabetes

After many years, it can cause serious health problems:

  1. You may have eye problems, including trouble seeing (especially at night) and sensitivity to light. You could also go blind.
  2. And also your feet and skin develop sores and infections. After an extended period, your foot or leg may need to be amputated. The disease can also cause pain and itching in other parts of the body.
  3. Diabetes can make it difficult to control your blood pressure and cholesterol. It can conduct in a heart attack, stroke, and other problems. Blood flow to the legs and feet may become more difficult.
  4. And also the nerves in your body can damage, causing pain, tingling, and numbness.
  5. Due to nerve damage, you may have trouble digesting the food you eat. You may feel weak or have difficulty going to the bathroom. Nerve damage can make men have difficulty getting an erection.
  6. High blood sugar and other problems can show kidney damage. Kidneys do not work as well as they used to. They may even stop working, so you would need dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  7. And also your immune system can weaken, which can show to frequent infections.

Prevention of Diabetes

Maintaining perfect body weight and an active lifestyle can prevent or delay the onset of type 2. If you are overweight, just losing 5% of your body weight can lower your risk. And also some medications can also use to delay or prevent the onset of type 2.

Right now, type 1 cannot prevent. However, there is promising research showing that type 1 can delay in some high-risk people.

Support Groups

  • Some resources can help you understand more about it. And also if you have this disease, you can also learn ways to manage it and prevent complications.

Expectations (Prognosis)

  • Diabetes is a stable disease for many people; tight control of blood glucose can prevent or delay complications from it.
  • However, these problems can occur, even in people with reasonable control.

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